Less fat, more hair and younger skin: Study in mice shows benefits from calorie-restricted diet

The effects of a restricted calorie (CR) diet on skin has not been thoroughly researched, until now. In Brazil, researchers have concluded that mice live longer when their diets are calorie limited. The study also found that fat reserves in adipose tissue, which aids in insulating the body, was reduced.

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To offset the effects of the diet, the mice skin stimulated fur growth and increased blood flow to warm the skin (an adaptive response). The authors also observed changes in cell metabolism while following the diet. “The changes in fur and skin were highly perceptible,” Kowaltowski said. “These changes are interesting because they appeared after only a few months when the animals were not yet old.” The study lasted six months and involved two groups of mice. One group (CR) was fed around 60% of the calories consumed by the other group (the control ), which was fed a pleasure diet (PD). The mice were free to eat as much food and as often as they chose. At the end of the study, the CR mice had 40% less body mass compared to the PD group, which became obese. The researchers speculated this was because the mice did not gain as much weight as the comparison group, not because of weight loss.

A thicker, longer, more uniform coat was also observed in the CR group, and it was suggested to be an adaptive response due to diminished fat. “Fur has properties that insulate animals to retain warmth,” Kowaltowski said. “We believe this is an adaptation present in mammals. Those that eat less have less fat, and they need more fur or body hair as thermal insulation.” Three times more blood vessels were seen in the CR mice, which increased blood flow to the skin. Differences in skin cell metabolism between groups were also noted, and in the obese mice, signs of premature aging arose. “The change in vasoconstriction helped the slimmer mice stay warm, and their skin also remained young,” Kowaltowski said.

To confirm that the extra fur was keeping the CR mice warm, the researchers shaved parts of the skin in both groups during the second stage of the study. “We shaved the mice and observed their evolution for one month,” Kowaltowski said. The researchers measured the loss of body heat and found that thicker fur did indeed help the mice retain warmth. “CR mice lost muscle mass and became lethargic,” Kowaltowski said. “This metabolic change directly resulted from the loss of body heat to the environment. The mice were unable to live well without fur.”

Additionally, both groups had their skin colored blue to examine if there was a difference in fur thickness, and the results showed that the PD mice had thinner fur compared to the CR mice. “They lost less fur, and their fur remained thick for longer. This could be an adaptation to avoid energy expenditure on growing fur,” Kowaltowski said. “These discoveries are particularly significant since they reveal not just a pronounced effect of the CR diet on the skin but also an adaptive mechanism to deal with the reduced insulation due to skin changes under conditions of lower caloric intake.”

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Defending the Liver

Kowaltowski and colleagues also revealed that a restricted calorie diet might protect the liver from a heart attack (short-term ceasing of blood flow). “When we compared mice fed ad libitum with mice fed a CR diet, we found a huge difference,” Kowaltowski said. “Approximately 25% of the liver was damaged in the former group, and only 1% was damaged in the latter.” The research design suspended roughly 70% of blood flow to the liver, for 40 minutes to stimulate a heart attack. This event increased tissue calcium and created a collapse of mitochondria functioning and termination of individual liver cells.

“Calcium is important to regulate mitochondrial metabolism and increase ATP [adenosine triphosphate, the molecule that stores energy] production. However, an excessive amount of calcium causes the organelles to stop working properly. Therefore, our hypothesis was that the observed benefit of the diet was related to an increase in the capacity of the mitochondria to capture calcium from the intracellular medium without ceasing to produce energy,” said Sergio Menezes-Filho, a researcher at IQ-USP and first author of the article. To interpret the mechanisms involved and to explore the hypothesis, in vitro experiments were conducted by segregating mitochondria from both mice groups and locating it in an incubation medium with a fluorescent probe that radiated brighter as calcium levels increased. The CR mice were again fed 60% of the control mice’s intake while the control group was fed PD.

“We added a small amount of calcium to the medium, and the fluorescence intensified. As the mitochondria captured the calcium, the brightness diminished. We added a little more. When the mitochondria reached maximum calcium uptake capacity, calcium began returning to the incubation medium, and fluorescence increased even without the addition of more calcium,” Menezes-Filho explained. The researchers detected that, without functional impairment, the mitochondria in the PD mice absorbed nearly 70% less calcium and had few ATP molecules compared to the CR mice.

According to Kowaltowski, “We do not yet know why the mitochondria of the mice fed ad libitum have less ATP, but this difference is certainly associated with their calcium uptake capacity.” “When we artificially matched the ATP levels in both groups by adding ATP to control mitochondria or reducing it in CR mitochondria, calcium uptake also became equal.” The objective of the research is to explore the effects of a restricted calorie diet on different bodily tissues. “Simply telling people to eat less is not working. Obesity has become a global epidemic. We are trying to understand how CR acts in the organism and which molecules are involved to identify targets for preventing or treating diseases associated with weight gain and age,” Kowaltowski said.

**** I hesitated to post this research in the event someone may read it and use it as a reason to restrict calories. As one who has been in recovery from Anorexia Nervosa for 4 years (I struggled for almost 20 years), restricting calories for the reasons that you have will only make you more unhappy in the end. If you are struggling, please get help by clicking here or talk to a trusted friend or family member or contact me!

Adapted from: 

  1. Maria Fernanda Forni, Julia Peloggia, Tárcio T. Braga, Jesús Eduardo Ortega Chinchilla, Jorge Shinohara, Carlos Arturo Navas, Niels Olsen Saraiva Camara, Alicia J. Kowaltowski. Caloric Restriction Promotes Structural and Metabolic Changes in the SkinCell Reports, 2017; 20 (11): 2678 DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2017.08.052
  2. Sergio L. Menezes-Filho, Ignacio Amigo, Fernanda M. Prado, Natalie C. Ferreira, Marcia K. Koike, Isabella F.D. Pinto, Sayuri Miyamoto, Edna F.S. Montero, Marisa H.G. Medeiros, Alicia J. Kowaltowski. Caloric restriction protects livers from ischemia/reperfusion damage by preventing Ca 2 -induced mitochondrial permeability transitionFree Radical Biology and Medicine, 2017; 110: 219 DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2017.06.01

 

Nutritional Nugget

Spice up your meals (and your life)! Flavor foods by adding herbs and spices, rather than salt. You can buy fresh or dried herbs and spices. Better yet, grow your own!

WOD Nugget

Miscreant: A person who has done something wrong or unlawful

*Notice the “Mis?” It’s us women who have no limits!  ­

Inspirational  Nugget
Just be yourself. Let people see the real, imperfect, flawed, quirky, weird, beautiful and magical person that your are. - Mandy Hale
“We suffer, not because we are bad or deserve to be punished, but because we mistakenly take change to always be permanent, we suffer. Because we mistake our flaws and “oops” for unchangables characterists and actions, we suffer.
Because we mistake that the “grass is greener on the other side, we suffer. And we remain stagnant in situations, with habits that continuously bring us sorrow.”
~Me

New way to treat cholesterol may be on the horizon

A breakthrough discovery by scientists at Houston Methodist could change the way we treat cholesterol. Researchers found new evidence that challenges a 40-year notion of how fast we eliminate it from our bodies.

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This accidental discovery, made by medical biochemist Henry Pownall, Ph.D., and his team at the Houston Methodist Research Institute, reveals a new pathway in the cholesterol-elimination chain that will be key to developing new drugs to lower cholesterol. Their findings are described in an article titled “ABCA1-Derived Nascent High-Density Lipoprotein-Apo AI, and Lipids Metabolically Segregate,” appearing online Oct. 26 and in print Nov. 21 in the American Heart Association’s Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology journal. Pownall, who is the corresponding author, said the initial purpose of their study was to prove the current model of cholesterol transport through the body was correct. It turns out, however, that the model was not quite right.

“The model people have been using for 40 years presumed that cholesterol was transported from the arteries with other lipids and proteins and entered a particle that stayed in the blood for several days before being cleared by the liver for disposal,” Pownall said. “What we discovered in the process was something different. We discovered the cholesterol skips all these steps and goes directly from this first particle to the liver in two minutes. This is a thousand times faster than what was formerly suspected.” Related image

While most studies look at HDL cholesterol in its mature form found in blood, Pownall and his colleagues studied cholesterol in nascent HDL, an early kind of HDL produced by cells. Cholesterol in the nascent HDL goes directly to the liver, mainly skipping conversion to the mature form of HDL. Pownall stresses that it’s not that current practices of treating “bad” LDL cholesterol are incorrect, but instead that physicians and researchers need to better understand how the “good” HDL cholesterol contributes to cardiovascular disease and how to raise it in a way that protects the heart, because some patients with very high HDL numbers, which were always thought to be beneficial, are actually at risk. “LDL cholesterol, the so-called ‘bad cholesterol’ is well controlled with the current statin therapies. The track record for these cholesterol-lowering drugs is indisputable, and they will continue to work,” Pownall said. “HDL, or the ‘good cholesterol,’ however, is a much trickier system. Not everything that raises it protects the heart and not everything that lowers it is terrible for you. We will need to redesign new drugs to lower plasma cholesterol in a way that takes into account this new mechanism. We will look for interventions, maybe dietary (why of course!), perhaps pharmacological, that raise HDL cholesterol in a way that helps protect the arteries and prevent cardiovascular disease.”

Adapted from: Bingqing Xu, Baiba K. Gillard, Antonio M. Gotto, Corina Rosales, Henry J. Pownall. ABCA1-Derived Nascent High-Density Lipoprotein–Apolipoprotein AI and Lipids Metabolically SegregateArteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 2017; ATVBAHA.117.310290 DOI: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.117.310290

Nutritional Nugget

Move to low-fat or fat-free milk or yogurt! Smoothies are a great way to enjoy dairy during the early morning rush. For a quick breakfast, blend yogurt with banana, peanut butter & ice.

WODal Nugget 

Timeous: In good time; sufficiently early

Inspirational Nugget

 

“There are three categories of suffering or pain to include: All-pervading pain, the pain of alternation and the pain of pain. All-pervading pain is the general pain of dissatisfaction, separation and loneliness. The sense of alternation between pain and its absence, again and again, is itself painful. And then there is the pain of pain. Resisting pain only increases its intensity.”

~Chogyam Trungpa Rinpoche

 

 

 

Imported candy at top of contaminated food list in California

Following a state law mandating testing, the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) issued more alerts for lead in candy than for the other top three sources of food-borne contamination combined, according to the first analysis of outcomes of the 2006 law by researchers at UC San Francisco and CDPH.

For many years, the state health department’s Food and Drug Branch has routinely prepared and disseminated health alerts to regional and county public health programs, practicing community clinicians, and the general public warning of potentially toxic food exposures. However, until the 2006 law mandated a surveillance program, the CDPH did not test widely for lead in candy. The new study shows that in the six years before the law went into effect, from 2001 to 2006, only 22 percent of the alerts about food contamination involved lead in candy. Once the program was implemented, however, 42 percent of the food contamination alerts issued by state health officials were for lead in candy, nearly all of it imported, which was more than the total for SalmonellaE. coli, and botulism, according to an analysis of alerts issued between 2001 and 2014. The study was published Oct. 26, 2017, in Environmental Health Perspectives.

Lead is a toxic heavy metal that can cause developmental delays, neurological damage, hearing loss, and other serious health problems in young children and adults. The study found that active community monitoring can identify lead in food products such as candy so they can be recalled before too many people have eaten them. Without such testing, health investigators must wait until after children have been poisoned to look for the sources, which is especially difficult when the source is as perishable as candy. “With this policy change identifying lead sources is more upstream and community-based,” said Margaret Handley, Ph.D., MPH, a professor of Epidemiology and Biostatistics at UCSF and the first author of the study. “By testing candy and issuing alerts when foods are found to be contaminated, we can identify and remove sources of lead before children become poisoned.”Image result for Imported candy at top of contaminated food list in California

As many as 10,000 California children under the age of six are poisoned by lead each year, and 1,000 of them are exposed to very high levels of the toxic metal. Most efforts to reduce exposure focus on the lead found in gasoline and industrially contaminated soil, as well as lead-based paint, which children take in when they eat paint chips or breathe in dust. However, after several high-profile poisoning cases, the California legislature passed a law requiring the state health department’s Food and Drug Branch to increase surveillance of lead in candy and to issue health alerts when levels are high. Over the 14-year study period, state public health officials issued 164 health alerts for food contamination. Of these, 60 were lead-related, and 55 of those were from imported food, mostly candy from Mexico (34 percent), China (24 percent) and India (20 percent). Two alerts were issued for imported foods that were not candy: One for a toasted grasshopper snack called chapuline, the other for spices.

To get an in-depth look at how well the testing program was working, the study analyzed data for the years 2011-2012 and found that state officials had tested 1,346 candies. Of these, 65 different products were found to contain lead, and 40 of those exceeded the federal limits for children (.10 parts per million). These candies came from a more diverse set of countries compared to the overall 2001 to 2014 samples; just over a third (35 percent) came from India. The others came from Taiwan (12 percent), China (11 percent), Mexico (9 percent), Pakistan (6 percent), Hong Kong (4 percent), the United Kingdom (3 percent), and one sample each from Germany, Indonesia, Thailand, Turkey, and Spain.

Since the candy testing program is not comprehensive, the researchers said the actual number of contaminated candies and other foods on the market could be even higher. “As more lead sources are identified we must develop prevention approaches for all of them, and not just replace one prevention approach with another,” Handley said. “If there is anything we have learned from the lead poisoning disaster in Flint, Michigan, it is not to oversimplify or cut corners when it comes to identifying and removing sources of lead poisoning.”

Adapted from: University of California – San Francisco. “Imported candy at top of contaminated food list in California: More health alerts issued for lead in candy than for Salmonella, E. coli or Botulism.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 26 October 2017. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/10/171026085753.htm>

Nutritional Nugget

Prepare for the after-school rush! Prep small containers of fruits and veggies the night before so kids can help themselves when they get home.

WODal Nugget

Arita: A type of Japanese porcelain characterized by asymmetric decoration

Inspirational Nugget
Do good for others. It will come back in unexpected ways.

“At some point, we need to stop identifying with our weaknesses and shift our allegiance to our basic goodness. It’s highly beneficial to understand that our limitations are not absolute and monolithic, but relative and removable.”

~Pema ChÖdrÖn

 

Gut bacteria from wild mice boost health in lab mice

Laboratory mice that are given the gut bacteria of wild mice can survive a deadly flu virus infection and fight colorectal cancer dramatically better than laboratory mice with their own gut bacteria; researchers report (October 19, 2017) in the journal Cell.

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The immunological benefits from the wild mice’s gut bacteria may, in part, explain a persistent problem in disease research: Why disease experiments in lab mice, such as vaccine studies, turn out very differently in humans or other animals. “We think that by restoring the natural ‘microbial identity’ of laboratory mice, we will improve the modeling of complex diseases of free-living mammals, which includes humans and their diseases,” said Barbara Rehermann, M.D., senior author of the paper. Rehermann is chief of the Immunology Section, Liver Diseases Branch, of the NIH’s National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). “By being so different, natural microbiota will help us to discover protective mechanisms that are relevant in the natural world and absent in the laboratory,” said Stephan Rosshart, M.D., first author of the paper and NIDDK postdoctoral fellow.

Mammals, humans included, depend on their microbiota, the collection of microorganisms they host in and on their bodies. Evolution shapes each animal’s microbiota, favoring populations of organisms that help the animal survive their environment and diseases they encounter. However, laboratory mice are not random house mice plucked from a field or basement. Laboratory mice are carefully bred, fed, and raised in tightly controlled conditions so that each mouse has predictable traits and genetics. This is an excellent advantage in basic biology research, but creating that predictability means that a controlled environment, and not the survival pressures of the outside world, shaped the microbiotas of laboratory mice.

“We hypothesized that this might explain why laboratory mice, while paramount for understanding basic biological phenomena are limited in their predictive utility for modeling complex diseases of humans and other free-living mammals,” said Rosshart. Therefore, the researchers tried to give laboratory mice back what they have lost: A naturally co-evolved wild mouse gut microbiota. The researchers trapped more than 800 wild mice from eight locations across Maryland and the District of Columbia to find healthy, suitable candidates for a gut microbiota donation. They then tested and compared the gut microbiomes (collective genomes of the gut microbiota) of the wild mice (Mus musculus domesticus) and a standard strain of laboratory mice, called C57BL/6, from multiple sources. The researchers confirmed that C57BL/6 mice had distinct gut microbiomes from wild mice.

Researchers then introduced (engrafted) the microbiota of wild mice to pregnant, germ-free C57BL/6 mice. Germ-free mice are raised in a sterile environment and don’t have microbiomes of their own. For a control group comparison, the researchers also engrafted microbiota from regular C57BL/6 mice into a separate group of pregnant, germ-free mice. Four generations later, the mice still carried either the wild microbiomes or the control laboratory microbiomes passed down from their foremothers.

When exposed to a high dose of influenza virus, 92 percent of the laboratory mice with wild microbiomes survived, whereas only 17 percent of laboratory mice and mice in the control group survived. In other experiments, the laboratory mice with wild microbiomes had better outcomes in the face of induced colorectal tumors, whereas the other mice had a higher number of tumors and more severe disease. The beneficial effects of the wild microbiota were associated with reduced inflammation in both models.

The researchers note that more work and evaluation is needed for definitive results, and they hope to improve and expand upon the method of using natural microbiomes in laboratory mice. “We are planning to create a complete microbiological fingerprint of natural microbiota and its potential trans-kingdom interaction by describing all components of the microbiome — for example, viruses and fungi — in parallel and at various body sites,” Rehermann said.

So, it’s ok not to be a germaphobe and let the little critters run free, every now and then!

Adapted from: Rosshart et al. Wild Mouse Gut Microbiota Promotes Host Fitness and Improves Disease ResistanceCell, 2017 DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2017.09.016

Nutrition Nugget

Use A Vegetable Substitute! Love spaghetti? Try spaghetti squash. Sure it’s not pasta but just try it, you may like it! Love mashed potatoes? Try mashed cauliflower (OMG it’s heavenly! You will never go back to potatoes). Mix in some Greek yogurt to give it a thick, creamy texture like regular mashed potatoes. While vegetables most likely won’t be the carbs you know and love, they’re a good way to make your favorite meals healthier!

Inspirational Nugget

Even when things seem hopeless, life has a way of defying the odds, overcoming the obstacles and coming back strong. So never give up, regardless of how hopeless things may seem. There is ALWAYS a way.

 

 

GP referral to Weight Watchers avoided type 2 diabetes in third of patients (UK)

More than a third of patients at risk of developing type 2 diabetes who reside in the UK avoided developing the condition after they were referred by their family doctor (GP) to a diabetes prevention program delivered by the commercial weight management provider, Weight Watchers, finds research published in BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care.

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The initiative also helped more than half of those referred either to reduce their risk of developing diabetes or to get their blood sugar levels back to normal. The number of people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes in the UK has increased from 1.4 to 2.9 million since 1996. An even more substantial increase can be seen in the United States (U.S.) with a rise from 7.6 to 23.4 million. A new diagnosis is made every 2 minutes, and by 2025, an estimated 5 million people in the UK and 53 million in the U.S. will have the condition. Horrifying statistics! Risk of developing type 2 diabetes is strongly influenced by lifestyle factors but can be significantly reduced by weight loss, achieved by eating less and exercising more.

The UK’s national health and social care guidance organization, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) says that certain commercial weight management providers, such as Weight Watchers, can help obese people shed pounds. A U.S. study showed that participation in a commercial weight management program succeeded in reversing progression to type 2 diabetes. However, the effectiveness of this approach in UK primary care has not been thoroughly evaluated. Therefore, the researchers identified 166 patients from 14 general practice surgeries at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes: Those with impaired glucose regulation known as pre-diabetes or non-diabetic hyperglycemia and with a body mass index (BMI) above 30 kg/m2.

These patients were then invited to contact Weight Watchers to book a place on their diabetes prevention program, which included a 90-minute induction session followed by 48 weekly group meetings. From among the 166 primary care referrals, 149 patients were eligible. Some 117 attended the induction, and 115 started the weekly sessions, representing a take-up rate of 70%, which is high for a lifestyle intervention, according to the researchers. The program focused on improving diet quality, reducing portion size, increasing physical activity levels, as well as boosting confidence in the ability to change and a commitment to the process.

Blood tests were repeated at 6 and 12 months to check risk factors, and any changes in weight were recorded by trained Weight Watcher staff. Analysis of the results showed that the initiative led to an average fall in HbA1c (a measure of average blood glucose levels over several weeks) of 2.84 mmol/mol after 12 months to levels regarded as standard. Blood glucose levels also returned to normal in more than a third (38%) of the patients and only 3% developed type 2 diabetes after 12 months. The average weight loss amounted to 10 kg (22lb) at the 12 month time point (a reduction in BMI of 3.2kg/m2).

The researchers acknowledge that not all patients at high risk go on to develop type 2 diabetes, added to which the referral numbers were low, based on the funding available, with few black or minority ethnic participants, men, or those on low incomes. Nevertheless, they conclude that the initiative has the potential to have considerable impact. “A UK primary care referral route partnered with this commercial weight management provider can deliver an effective diabetes prevention programme,” they write. “The lifestyle changes and weight loss achieved in the intervention translated into considerable reductions in diabetes risk, with an immediate and significant public health impact.”

Adapted from: Carolyn Piper, Agnes Marossy, Zoe Griffiths, Amanda Adegboye. Evaluation of a type 2 diabetes prevention program using a commercial weight management provider for non-diabetic hyperglycemic patients referred by primary care in the UKBMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care, 2017; 5 (1): e000418 DOI: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2017-000418

*If you are looking to knock $30.00 off of your next wine purchase, check out Bright Cellars! You can also find the link posted on the right side of the blog. Happy sippen! 

Daily Nutrition Nugget

Add Protein To Your Breakfast! A protein-packed breakfast will reduce hunger later in the day. This doesn’t mean load up on three kinds of breakfast meats, instead add a hard-boiled egg or some Greek yogurt to your first meal of the day. Try a cup of plain Greek yogurt with some sliced almonds, mixed berries, honey and chia seeds mixed together.

Daily Inspiration Nugget 

People change for two main reasons: either their minds have been opened, or their hearts have been broken.